Travel

Unpacking Tourism

ddrhr_129Tourism shapes popular fantasies of adventure, structures urban and natural space, creates knowledge around difference, and demands an array of occupations servicing the insatiable needs of those who travel for leisure. Even as migrants and refugees have become targets of ire from far-right parties, international tourism has grown worldwide.

The most recent issue of Radical History Review, “Unpacking Tourism,” posits a radical approach to the study of tourism, highlighting how tourism as a paradigmatic modern encounter bleeds into diplomacy, militarism, and empire building. Contributors investigate, among other topics, how the United States has used tourism in Latin America as a tool of interventionist foreign policy, how Bethlehem’s Manger Square has become a contested space between Palestinians and the Israeli state, how Spain’s economy increasingly relies on northern European tourists, and how the US military’s Cold War–era guidebooks attempted to convert soldiers stationed abroad into “ambassadors of goodwill.”

Read the introduction to the issue, made freely available.

Stuart Hall’s First Encounter with London

In this excerpt from Stuart Hall’s new memoir, Familiar Stranger: A Life between Two Islands, he describes his trip with his mother, Jessie, from Jamaica to the United Kingdom. Hall had earned a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University and the two traveled there together in 1951. Enjoy the excerpt and then buy the book for 30% off with coupon E17FAMST.

978-0-8223-6387-3_pr w strokeIt is uncannily disconcerting to look back at my younger self, arriving in the port of Avonmouth in 1951, ready for a new life but absolutely unsure how it would happen, or what it would look like if it did. I was indeed elsewhere! I can say, however, that the colonial experience prepared me for England. Far from being an untroubled, innocent opportunity for me to step out into something new, this was an encounter which was mightily overdetermined.

My arrival preceded by some three months the general election in October in which the Conservatives ousted Labour and Winston Churchill regained the office of Prime Minister. After a short while I headed for Oxford University, into the very cultural heartland of England.

But this was an encounter which has not yet come to an end. It continues. It was, as Donald Hinds termed it a long while ago, ‘a journey to an illusion’ – or rather, a journey to the shattering of illusions, inaugurating a process of protracted disenchantment. I didn’t really know what I would find or what I would do with ‘it’ if I found ‘it’. I knew I didn’t want to be ‘it’, whatever that was. But I did want to encounter in the flesh, as it were, this phantasm of ‘other worlds’, swollen with – as it happened – false promise. What I really knew about Britain turned out to be a bewildering farrago of reality and fantasy. However, such illusions as I may have taken with me were unrealized because, fortunately, they were unrealizable. The episode was painful as well as exciting. It changed me irrevocably, almost none of it in ways I had remotely anticipated.

The whole experience was eerily familiar and disconcertingly strange at the same time. One can attribute this to the sense of déjà‑vu which assails colonial travellers on first encountering face-to-face the imperial metropole, which they actually know only in its translated form through a colonial haze, but which has always functioned as their ‘constitutive outside’: constituting them, or us, by its absence, because it is what they – we – are not. This is a manner of being defined from the beyond!

On the boat train to London, I kept feeling I’d seen this place somewhere before, as in a screen memory. It provoked a deep psychic recognition, an illusory after-effect. Had I been here before? Yes and no. I hadn’t anticipated what the English countryside would look like but, once I saw it whizzing past the train windows, I knew that this was how it should look: those proper, well-fed, black-and-white cows munching away contentedly in their neatly divided, hedgerowed fields surrounded by enormous, spreading sycamore trees. Everything I had read had prepared me for that. I knew, after all, the novels of Thomas Hardy. On the other hand, nothing had prepared me for the stark contrast between the sombre brick-and-cement hues and the well-disciplined dark, monotone character of London streets and the chaotic bustle of Kingston street life, with people shoving past one another on the crowded pavements, the handcarts and ice barrows with their rows of syrup bottles, the raucous hubbub and teeming vitality, provincial as it was.

London, when we got there, felt unwelcoming and forbidding. I guess my memories must have been infiltrated by what happened later, for what immediately comes to mind is the heavy, leaden autumn sky, the light permanently stuck halfway to dusk, the constant fine drizzle (where was the proper rain, the tropical downpour?), the blank windows of the square black cabs, the anonymity of the faces in the red double-decker buses, the yellow headlights glistening off the wet tarmac along the Bayswater Road. A dark, shuttered, anonymous city; high blocks of mansion flats,
turning up their noses at the life of the streets below. Everyone was buttoned up in dark suits, overcoats and hats, many carrying the proverbial umbrellas, scurrying with downcast eyes through the gathering gloom to unknown destinations. This was post-war austerity London, with its bombed-out sites, rubble and gaping spaces like missing teeth. A faint mist permanently shrouded Hyde Park, where ladies in jodhpurs and hard riding hats cantered their horses in the early mornings; the lights blazed in the Oxford Street department stores by three in the afternoon. There must have been bright and sunny days, for it was only the end of summer. But I don’t remember them.

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Governor Jerry Brown, City Lights Bookstore, and a Bulgarian Adventure

Left Side of HistoryWelcome to the University Press Week blog tour! Today we offer a guest post on the power of indie bookstores by Kristen Ghodsee, author of The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe (2015).

On May 23, 2016, I woke up in Helsinki to an email containing a voice to text transcript of a message from someone called “Kathy,” claiming to be based in the office of the governor of California.  I deleted the message.  It was election season and they were probably asking for money, I thought.  No one uses land lines unless they’re asking for money.

But the next message in my inbox was from my administrative coordinator back at Bowdoin College.  She forwarded me a message left on her voice mail from the same Kathy who stated that Jerry Brown “would like to speak with Professor Kristen Ghodsee.”  I did a quick Google search of Kathy’s full name, and found that she indeed worked in Sacramento for the governor’s office.

But why would the governor want to speak with me?  As a Californian and a product of two public universities in the Golden State, I wondered if this had something to do with projected changes to the UC system.  I grew up under Jerry Brown.  I was four years old in San Diego when he was first elected governor at the age of 36 in 1974.  He served as “Governor Moonbeam” until I was 13.  Many years later I was a doctoral student at Berkeley when he became the mayor of neighboring Oakland, but I had already relocated to Maine when he was sworn in for his third term as California governor in 2011, succeeding the “Governator,” Arnold Schwarzenegger.  He was serving his fourth term 2016.

Soon after, I received a direct email from Kathy.  I told her I was on leave in Finland, (ten hours ahead of Pacific Standard time), and asked what this was about.  She wrote: “Hello and thank you for your reply. I believe he was hoping to chat with you about “To the Left of History.” Would a phone call be possible? And if yes, could you please provide some possible times when you might be available?”

city-lights

It turns out that Governor Brown hangs around the City Lights Bookstore in San Francisco and stumbled upon a copy of my book, The Left Side of History on a shelf there.  Intrigued by the title, he bought and read it and wanted to discuss the book with me.  Thus ensued a series of conversations that lasted for the next six weeks as Governor Brown and I corresponded by phone and email.  Once on a intercity train between Tampere and Helsinki, my mobile phone rang and I ended up having to sit in a cramped sound proof booth for an hour while the Governor and I discussed East European politics and his upcoming trip to Bulgaria.

Governor Brown would be traveling to the small Balkan country in early July with his wife and two friends.  He asked me to help arrange meetings for him in Sofia, but also if it would be possible for he and his wife to meet Elena Lagadinova, the 86-year-old protagonist of my book.  Lagadinova had been the youngest female partisan fighting against the Nazi-allied monarchy in Bulgaria during World War II.  My book was an attempt to recuperate the heroism of those who fought on the “left side of history:” mostly communist idealists who risked their lives to defeat fascism.

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And so it was on July 8th, that the sitting governor of California shared tea and cakes with Elena Lagadinova in Sofia, a meeting made possible through a healthy does of serendipity and the astounding power of university press books and independent bookstores to bring stories and people together despite the decades and oceans between them.

banner-upw2016

Now that you’ve read this post, please continue on the University Press Week blog tour. Head to University of Texas Press for Q&A with their sales manager about visiting indie bookstores along the West Coast  this fall. The University of Chicago Press blog features a day in the life of sales rep Mical Moser. Cornell University Press spotlights Buffalo Street Books, Ithaca’s cooperatively owned community bookstore. University Press of Colorado looks back on the past year’s author events at their two local indies, Tattered Cover and Boulder Bookstore. NYU Press features a re-cap of the Brooklyn Book Festival. McGill Queens University Press offers an appreciation of Canada’s independent bookstores. University Press of Kentucky will be featuring fun, revealing Q&As with indie booksellers across the state. University Press of Kansas showcases  The Raven Bookstore and KU Bookstore, two local, independent shops that carry and promote their titles. And don’t miss a post from one of the U.S.’s best indie bookstores, the Seminary Co-op, where they’ll highlight what’s on their front table right now.

Postcard from Columbus: Kendall McKenzie attends IFLA 2016

IFLA-2016-Logo-CMYK-Colors_522x400_large

Library Sales Specialist Kendall McKenzie is attending the 2016 International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) World Library and Information Congress in Columbus, Ohio, from August 13-19. We recently sat down with Kendall to chat about what she wants to learn from librarians, what she is excited to talk to attendees about, and what she is most interested in eating while visiting The Biggest Small Town in America.

What are the things you’d like to talk to IFLA attendees about?

I’m excited to talk about our two new e-book subject collections: the Latin American Studies collection and the Gender Studies collection. These subject collections are great resources for specialty schools or schools with a strong program in either Latin American studies or gender studies. I’d love to hear from librarians about their experience and thoughts when assessing a subject collection, and would appreciate any and all feedback. Oftentimes with our e-Duke Books and e-Duke Journal collections, we might be in conversation with universities, so I think we’ll have more chances to work with a full range of schools, including community colleges and specialty libraries.

What do you want to learn from librarians?

I’d like to talk about our open-access offerings, including Project Euclid, Environmental Humanities, and the Carlyle Letters Online. We want to learn what librarians would like to see for the future of open access in the humanities. I’d also be interested to hear about what kind of models for evidence-driven acquisitions (EDA) librarians have used and really like. And of course, I’d love to learn how international libraries are structured, and what kinds of content interests them.

What are you planning to do and see while you’re in Columbus?

I am most excited about walking around the city and taking a ton of photos. I like to try to be really subtle and not look like a tourist but still explore the city. I’m also really looking forward to the restaurants. I hear there’s a hot dog place that I have to try—Dirty Frank’s Hot Dog Palace—that has a hot dog called Sarva’s Tot-cho Dog. It’s smothered in tater tots, cheese sauce, jalapeños, and onions. It looks delicious. The German Village Historic District is close to downtown and is full of restaurants and bakeries—I hope to visit and walk around.

Will you be attending IFLA 2016? Stop by and see Kendall at Booth E107 in Hall D during the conference.

The World Library and Information Congress is held each year in a different region of the world. 2016 marks the congress’ return to the US for the first time since 2001. Follow along with the 2016 IFLA congress on Facebook and Twitter. We’re looking forward to attending IFLA 2017 in Wrocław, Poland next year!

 

Call for Papers: Unpacking Tourism, a special issue of Radical History Review

Unpacking Tourism
Issue number 129 (Fall 2017)
Abstract Deadline: January 15, 2016
Issue editors: Daniel Bender (University of Toronto), Steven Fabian (State University of New York at Fredonia), Jason Ruiz (University of Notre Dame), Daniel Walkowitz (New York University)

ddrhr_123This issue of the Radical History Review will explore radical approaches to the study of tourism.  As Hal Rothman has argued, tourism economies frequently represent a “devil’s bargain” between tourists and those that he and others have called the “toured upon.”  We want to extend Rothman’s understanding of tourism to ask questions that speak to broader forms of human mobility, from those who tour as a leisure activity to the tourism as a colonial project. How do people and communities resist the exploitative aspects of the touristic encounter? How do the practices of tourism challenge or reinforce the “realness” of nation-states, ethnic groups, and other imagined communities?

Tourism represents a critical way of producing knowledge about the ‘Other,’ poverty, nature, and culture, and it is the task of radical historians to interrogate the underlying systems of power that shape that knowledge production.  Tourism engages contested spaces and histories of those spaces, variously engaged by tourists, both local and foreign, and local residents, but also by curators and museum professionals, guides, and private and public agencies for which the project is a business as well as local, regional and national politicians.  This issue seeks essays that engage these struggles and the diverse cultural, political, and economic sources contestants mobilize.  It also interrogates the relationship between the knowledge produced by tourism in everyday life and of dominion such as empire.

This issue is interested in both the history of tourism and history in tourism.  What kinds of narratives about modernity, folklore, and development are produced through the tourist encounters? How does tourism, as a global industry with its own capitalist and labor history, relate to other forms of ethnographic leisure, such as museums?  How do local actors decide which historical narratives are privileged in the marketing of a place? How do tourists’ demands for authenticity, accessible infrastructure (including railroads, hotels, police, etc.), and adventure shape local and regional political economy?  What modes of agency do the “locals” express—or lack—as they approach the touristic encounter?

ddrhr_121We will bring together scholars from a variety of disciplinary and geographic locations to provide alternative histories of the touristic encounter.  We are especially interested in essays that transcend national boundaries, asking big questions about tourism from a transnational perspective.  Topics might include (but are not limited to):

  • The origins of modern tourism
  • Tourism and empire
  • Ecotourism and touring nature
  • Culinary tourism
  • Guidebooks
  • Medical and plastic surgery tourism
  • The work/labor of tourism
  • Heritage tourism
  • Living history
  • Slumming
  • Sex tourism
  • Anti-tourism activism and other modes of resistance
  • Tourism and Nationalism
  • Space tourism

The RHR seeks scholarly, monographic research articles, but we also encourage such non-traditional contributions as photo essays, film and book review essays, interviews, brief interventions, “conversations” between scholars and/or activists, and teaching notes and annotated course syllabi for our Teaching Radical History section.

ddrhr_120Procedures for submission of articles: By January 15, 2016, please submit a 1-2 page abstract summarizing the article you wish as an attachment to the Radical History Review editorial office with “Issue 129 Abstract Submission” in the subject line. By March 1, 2016, authors will be notified whether they should submit a full version of their article for peer review. The due date for full-length article submissions will be July 1, 2016.

Please send any images as low-resolution digital files embedded in a Word or PDF document along with the text. If chosen for publication, you will need to supply high-resolution image files (JPG or TIFF files at a minimum of 300 dpi) and secure permission to reprint the images.

Those articles selected for publication after the peer review process will be included in issue 129 of the Radical History Review, scheduled to appear in October, 2017.

Abstract Deadline: January 15, 2016

New Books in April

Spring is finally here, and what better way to welcome it than a round-up of new and forthcoming books? Here are all the fantastic new books to expect in April.

 Novak & Sakakeeny cover image, 5889-3Keywords in Soundby David Novak and Matt Sakakeeny, defines the field of sound studies and provides a comprehensive conceptual apparatus for why studying sound matters. Each essay includes the keyword’s intellectual history, a discussion of its role in cultural, social and political discourses, and suggestions for possible future research.

Ilan Stavans and Joshua Ellison’s Reclaiming Travel is a provocative meditation on the meaning of travel in the twenty-first century. Eschewing tourism, Stavans and Ellison urge for a rethinking of contemporary travel in order to return it to its roots as a tool for self-discovery and transformation.

Anthropologist Shalini Shankar explores how racial and ethnic differences are Shankar cover image, 5877-0created and commodified through advertisements and marketing in Advertising Diversity. Focusing on Asian American ad firms, she describes the day-to-day process of creating ads and argues that advertising has framed Asian Americans as “model consumers,” thereby legitimizing their presence in American popular culture.

The contributors to Postgenomicsedited by Sarah S. Richardson and Hallam Stevens, assess the changes to the life sciences the Human Genome Project’s completion brought, develop new frameworks for studying the human genome in the postgenomic era, and show how the environment, technology, race, and gender influence the genome and how we think about it.

In Unearthing ConflictFabiana Li examines the politics surrounding the rapid growth of mining in the Peruvian Andes, arguing that anti-mining protests are not only about mining’s negative environmental impacts, but about the legitimization of contested forms of knowledge.

Hochberg cover image, 5887-9In Visual Occupations, Gil Z. Hochberg examines films, photography, painting and literature by Israeli and Palestinian artists. Israel’s greater ability to control what can be seen, how, and from what position drives the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The artists Hochberg studies challenge Israel’s visual and social dominance by creating new ways to see the conflict.

Nancy van Deusen examines over one hundred lawsuits that indio slaves brought to the Spanish court in the mid-sixteenth century to gain their freedom in Global Indios. The category indio was largely constructed during these lawsuits, and van Deusen emphasizes the need to situate colonial indigenous subjects and slavery in a global context.

In Political Landscapes, an environmental history of twentieth-century Mexico, Christopher R. Boyer conceptualizes the forests of Chihuahua and Michoacán as political landscapes. Conflicts among local landowners, the federal government and timber companies politicized these geographies, demonstrating the crucial role that social forces play in the construction of environments.

In Repeating Žižekedited by Agon Hamza, the contributors read the influential and controversial Slavoj Žižek as a Hamza cover image, 5891-6
philosopher. They place his work in the Western philosophical tradition and analyze it using his own theses, concepts, and methods, all while attempting to formalize his thought into a philosophical school.

Challenging Social Inequality, edited by Miguel Carter, is a collection of essays examining the history and contemporary struggles of Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement, the largest social movement in the Americas.

The “Lost City” of Machu Picchu

On July 24th, 1911, American archaeologist Hiram Bingham and the Yale Peruvian Expedition team followed an eleven year old boy to the ruins of Machu Picchu. The expedition sensationalized the area and opened the floodgates of tourism in Peru. Today, tourists, adventurers, and academic enthusiasts from all over the world still flock to Machu Picchu. In honor of this wonder, sample several articles from two journals, Ethnohistory and Hispanic American History Review.

Ddeh_59_2In “Collecting a ‘Lost City’ for Science: Huaquero Vision and the Yale Peruvian Expedition to Machu Picchu, 1911, 1912, and 1914–15,” Amy Cox Hall delves deeper into the rediscovery of Machu Picchu. She examines the practices and collecting technologies of the expedition to suggest that the objects accumulated as well as the practices used in accumulating helped fashion Machu Picchu into a “lost city” that was “scientifically discovered” by Bingham. Read an excerpt:

Although popular myth associates Hiram Bingham and his global unveiling of Machu Picchu in 1911 with archaeology, Bingham was trained as a historian and “had little interest in stratigraphy” or other methodologies associated with modern archaeological research. Instead, what was practiced on the three forays of the Yale Peruvian Expedition (YPE) to Machu Picchu is better characterized as a late antiquarianism-inspired collecting spree—or, less generously, strategic “grave robbing."

In this article I suggest that the expedition’s practices and technologies helped mythologize Machu Picchu into a “lost city.” ̈ It was initially imagined by Bingham as the lost Inca city of Vilcapampa, and the expedition team’s collecting practices and the frame of science, as well as the types of artifacts collected, helped materialize Machu Picchu as both a vestige of the Inca race and a “scientific discovery.” The collecting practices combined prospecting with the notion that science had a sovereign claim on those objects that might contribute to the accumulation of its knowledge. Rather than representing a nation’s or empire’s sovereign claim over a territory and its history, the expedition relied on the universal virtue and sovereignty of science to make its objects collectible.

Read more of “Collecting a ‘Lost City’ for Science” here.

Ddhahr_92_1In “Tourism, Environment, and Development on the Inca Trail,” Keely Maxwell explores how tourism has shaped Latin America by constructing touristic landscapes and impacting environmental problem solving. He utilizes written records and interviews to document the environmental history of the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. Read an excerpt:

Thousands of kilometers of former Inca roads span the Andes. One 40-kilometer section has become a new type of Andean pathway, a tourist trail hiked by 54,000 foreign visitors in 2008 alone. Tourism has emerged as a potent political economic force in twentieth-century Latin America, with concomitant environmental impacts. Yet despite the importance of tourism in the region, there are few scholarly investigations of its history, particularly its environmental history. Research has centered on how tourism developed as a leisure activity linked to modernity and capitalist industrialization, on the social construction of tourism destinations, and on social relations of hosts to guests. In Latin America, tourism histories have focused geographically on the Caribbean and Mexico and thematically on “sun and sand” or on cultural heritage tourism. The Inca Trail is part of the Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary, created in 1981 and designated a World Heritage Site for natural and cultural heritage in 1983. It is a premiere tourist destination and the center of controversy over environmental impacts, and so it provides a critical case for examining the environmental history of Latin American tourism.

Read more of “Tourism, Environment, and Development on the Inca Trail” here.

Duke University Press at the Canadian Library Association Meeting

DUP booth at CLA 2014In May we attended the Canadian Library Association Conference for the first time in Victoria, British Columbia. Attending this meeting was a great way for us to reach out to our Canadian customers and learn more about what we can do to make their jobs easier.

University of Victoria Library Tour

The University of Victoria Library Tour

In addition to exhibiting and attending panels, we were able to tour two academic libraries—the University of Victoria and Camosun College Libraries—to learn more about recent library renovations at both schools. We even noticed some of our journals in the stacks!

We've always found it beneficial to engage in current conversations about important topics such as accessibility, open access content, and what new scholarship we can offer our customers like the recent launch of TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly.

Camosun College Campus

Camosun College Campus

We look forward to meeting more of our customers! The next library conferences we will be attending are the International Federation of Library Association annual meeting and the Frankfurt Book Fair. 

 

 

Library Meetings: Bigger than Small Talk

Library Relations

Our Library Relations team: (L to R) Kendall, Beth, and Kim

Our Library Relations team travels to conferences around the globe, including the United Kingdom Serials Group Annual Conference (UKSG), the International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference (IFLA), and the Frankfurt Book Fair. If you come across a Duke University Press booth in your travels, we hope that you'll come say hello.

Kim Steinle, Library Relations and Sales Manager

"One of the nicest things about library conferences is the opportunity to finally meet a librarian in person after years of e-mails. Face-to-face conversations about usage reporting or budget constraints can be so productive. The frank exchange of information helps us be as responsive as possible to librarians' concerns." Kim's next meetings are North American Serials Interest Group (NASIG) and IFLA.

Beth Hoskins, Library Relations Coordinator

"I'm always struck by how easily small talk leads to big ideas at library meetings. I remember chatting with a librarian who was frustrated by all of the time she spent sorting through massive site licenses. As a result, we trimmed our e-collection site licenses down to two pages. It was great to learn about a specific way that we could lighten a burden for our customers."

Kendall McKenzie, Data and Project Specialist

"Conferences give me the chance to absorb the library culture. We love to learn about librarians’ challenges, successes, new trends, and what they want most out of their content. It’s exciting to have these conversations in person and really witness their energy." Kendall's next meeting is UKSG.

UKSG

If you'll be attending UKSG, please look for Kendall and Leslie Eager at Stand 74. Leslie is returning for her second UKSG and Kendall is looking forward to attending for the first time. 

We'd love to see you while we're in the UK. If we can meet either at the conference or on a campus visit, please contact us!

Celebrate Mardi Gras with our Journals

Maybe Mardi Gras isn't celebrated in your city, but who says you can't get into the spirit? Duke University Press has published many journal articles on Mardi Gras, and we've made these two freely available for the holiday—so don your beads and mask, cut a slice of king cake, and dive into these articles.*

B2_logoOutline_k_web"Spenser and Milton at Mardi Gras: English Literature, American Cultural Capital, and the Reformation of New Orleans Carnival" by Richard Rambuss in boundary 2 (27:2)

Read an excerpt:

Milton may be far from mind when one now thinks of or, better, experiences what is advertised as the world's greatest free party. Yet, as we have begun to consider, a rather detailed, even learned usage of literature—particularly English Renaissance and classical literature—played a structuring role in Comus's endeavor to appropriate and dignify the residual Latin traditions of Carnival. Propounding a caste status for its founders that was then more an aspiration than an actuality, a commemorative booklet issue by the Mistick Krewe in 1947 thus explains that 'as the members of Comus were socially important this meant that their celebration of Mardi Gras was orderly, educational and cultural.' (pages 49-50)

For more of "Spenser and Milton at Mardi Gras," click here.

 

GLQ_black_web"Mardi Gras Tourism and the Construction of Sydney as an International Gay and Lesbian City" by Kevin Markwell in GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies (8:1-2)

Read an excerpt:

Mardi Gras attracts many domestic and international tourists to Sydney during February, and their numbers peak just prior to the parade and party at the end of the festival. The festival, parade, and party are major events on Australia’s tourism calendar. There is a strong representation from countries such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, and France, as well as increasing numbers of tourists from Southeast Asia, and Mardi Gras packages are advertised in the gay and lesbian press in European and North American countries. While approximately 15 percent of the eighty events at the festival are free, many of the most popular ones require tickets… Full participation in the festival is an expensive undertaking, especially when coupled with the costs of outfits; body treatments such as waxing, tanning, gym training, hairstyling, and party drugs; and, for tourists, accommodation and transportation costs. Many people are willing, however, to spend large sums because Mardi Gras becomes for them the major yearly event that helps define their gay or lesbian identity. (page 84)

For more of "Mardi Gras Tourism," click here.

 

Roll With ItDon't forget to check out Matt Sakakeeny's new book Roll With It: Brass Bands in the Streets of New Orleans while you're on your Mardi Gras kick!

 

*If you're in a location that really celebrates Mardi Gras, don't be concerned. You can still read these articles through the end of the month. Recover from your festivities and then get to reading.