Memory, Amnesia, Commemoration

In the newest issue of English Language Notes, “Memory, Amnesia, Commemoration,” edited by Ramesh Mallipeddi and Cristobal Silva, contributors explore the interrelationship between history (the study of past events) and memory (the ways in which the past is remembered and accessed). Specifically, they investigate how catastrophes—colonization, slavery, war, genocide, and disease pandemics—impact memory; how traumatic events are remembered by victims, survivors, and descendants; and the collective forgetting of traumatic pasts.

Topics include traces of trauma and resilience in Native and Colonial North America, the contemporary new diaspora of African Americans fleeing the Gulf after Hurricane Katrina, the memorialization of black southern experience, dementia in Holocaust literature, and a major blind spot in comparative memory studies.

Browse the issue’s contents and read the introduction, freely available. Be sure to sign up to receive email alerts about new issues of English Language Notes!

A Possible Anthropology: A Guest Post by Anand Pandian

Anand Pandian teaches anthropology at Johns Hopkins University. His books include Reel World: An Anthropology of Creation and the coedited volume Crumpled Paper Boat: Experiments in Ethnographic Writing, both also published by Duke University Press. In this guest post, he writes about his new book, A Possible Anthropology: Methods for Uneasy Times, which conceptualizes anthropology as a mode of practical and transformative inquiry, staging an ethnographic encounter with the field in an effort to grasp its impact on the world and its potential for addressing and offering solutions to the profound crises of the present. Join him at his online book launch on Friday, November 15. See more at the end of this post.

In a time of intense uncertainty, social strife, and ecological upheaval, what does it take to envision the world as it yet may be? In A Possible Anthropology: Methods for Uneasy Times, I argue that the field of anthropology has resources essential for this critical task. It is true that anthropology is no stranger to unjustice and exploitation. The colonial and racial violence that gave rise to the field remains with us still. All the same, with this field as with any domain of social life, dominant tendencies are always crosscut by emergent elements on the threshold of possibility. This book pursues the vision of a possible anthropology, one to meet the challenge of uneasy times, one willing to set sail with its most imaginative kin.

I explore these ideas with the studied eyes of an apprentice rather than through an authoritative voice of judgment: as an ethnographer, that is, of a scholarly practice at work. Ethnography is a endeavor in critical observation and imagination, an effort to trace the outlines of a possible world within the seams of this one. A Possible Anthropology is written in the spirit of a fieldwork journey in the company of working anthropologists: canonical figures like Bronislaw Malinowski and Claude Lévi-Strauss, ethnographic storytellers like Zora Neale Hurston and Ursula K. Le Guin, contemporary scholars like Jane Guyer and Michael Jackson. Paying heed to their methods, we encounter an empiricism pitched beyond the givenness of the here and now, drawing from the expressive powers of magic, myth, and metaphor, the revelation of realities otherwise unseen. Their work helps to reveal the method of experience that anthropology relies upon, one that carries the transformative force of encounter through diverse forms of practical activity: fieldwork, writing, teaching, reading, and beyond.

“This book pursues the vision of a possible anthropology, one to meet the challenge of uneasy times, one willing to set sail with its most imaginative kin.”

The early 20th century work of the “Boas circle” rested on “a theory of human society, but it was also a user’s manual for life … meant to enliven our moral sensibility,” Charles King observes in his gripping and insightful account of the birth of American anthropology, Gods of the Upper Air (Knopf Doubleday). With this book too, I try to show how anthropology remains a venture in cultural transformation as much as representation, a creative engagement with human nature at the threshold of the natural and cultural. I convey this idea by tracing how anthropological insight and imagination circulate in diverse arenas of contemporary public life, such as indigenous ecopolitics, futurist artwork, and speculative fiction. Humanity surfaces in such arenas as a medium of expression and aspiration, rather than as an object of analysis or a species to distinguish. With this insight in mind, I argue, we can think of anthropology itself as an affirmative mode of critique, less concerned with denunciation than with the opening of new horizons, a way to nurture the potential of things to become other than what they are.

Anthropology is a discipline manifestly devoted to social justice, but one that still manages to reproduce inequality in many of its fundamental modes of operation. Demands to democratize the discipline and to work against its enduring hierarchies of race, class, gender, and privilege have come into focus most sharply in online venues like #AnthroTwitter. With some of the lessons of these debates in mind, this book is launching as an online public event, an occasion to tune in wherever in the world one may be. Here’s a link to the Zoom webinar that will host the book launch on Friday, November 15th from 12:00–2:00 pm EST (5:00–7:00 pm UTC): https://zoom.us/j/545386810.

I’ll talk a little bit about the book and read a couple of excerpts from the chapters, with plenty of time for Q&A. You can also follow along on Twitter with the hashtag #AnthroPossibility.

You can read the introduction of A Possible Anthropology, free online now, and purchase a paperback copy of for 30% off using the coupon code E19PANDN.

Black Sacred Music Archive Now Available

We are excited to announce the digitization of Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology, published semiannually from 1987 to 1995 and now available online for the first time.

Subscribe now for access, or ask your library to purchase the archive.

Black Sacred Music, under the editorship of Yahya Jontingaba (formerly known as Jon Michael Spencer), sought to establish theomusicology—a theologically informed musicology—as a distinct discipline, incorporating methods from anthropology, sociology, psychology, and philosophy to examine the full range of black sacred music. Topics included the theology of American pop, the early days of rap, the African church, spirituals, gospel music, civil rights songs, and much more.

The journal consisted of scholarly articles, essays, hymns and folk songs, sermons, historical reprints, and reviews of books, hymn books, and recordings. It also published volumes of archival writings by R. Nathaniel Dett, William Grant Still, and Willis Laurence James.

Notable contributors include Philip V. Bohlman, Michael Eric Dyson, Andrew Greeley, Mark Sumner Harvey, Willie James Jennings, D. Soyini Madison, Sonja Peterson-Lewis, Harold Dean Trulear, William C. Turner Jr., Archbishop Desmond M. Tutu, Cornel West, and Jeremiah A. Wright Jr.

Duke University Press, Duke University Libraries, and Horse & Buggy Press to Release Special Print Edition of Allan Gurganus’s Holiday Story “A Fool for Christmas”

978-1-4780-0938-2Allan Gurganus’s “A Fool for Christmas” first charmed audiences when he read it on NPR’s “All Things Considered” in 2004. Together with Duke University Libraries, which acquired Gurganus’s archives in 2018, and Horse & Buggy Press, Duke University Press is pleased to be bringing the story into print for the first time in a limited edition with hand-printed letterpress covers.

The story is set during the Christmas season, when mall pet store manager Vernon Ricketts splits his time between selling irresistible puppies and kittens festooned with holiday bows and shielding the mall’s loiterers from its over-zealous manager, “Terminator” Vanderlip. Just days before Christmas, Vernon notices a small, bedraggled girl in a worn overcoat desperately trying to blend into the mall’s background. Sensing she’s a runaway in trouble, Vernon feels obliged to help. His kindness and their chance encounter will produce a Christmas miracle that becomes a legend as it changes lives.

Allan Gurganus‘s fiction has been translated into sixteen languages. His books Gurganusinclude Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells AllWhite PeoplePlays Well with OthersThe Practical Heart; and Local Souls. He has been awarded the Los Angeles Times Book Prize, the American Academy’s Sue Kaufman Prize for best first novel, a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Lambda Literary Award, and the National Magazine Prize.

Dave Wofford of Horse & Buggy Press has designed over 150 books, including over 20 fine press titles that bear the H&B imprint, many which have won awards for their content and design. This includes It Had Wings, the 1997 publication which features eight pen and ink drawings Allan made to illustrate his oft anthologized short story (originally published by Knopf in White People). This hand-printed, hand-bound edition was produced in a limited edition of 335 signed and numbered copies and also included a “Story of the Story,” in which Allan details turning a novella into a much shorter form after receiving insightful feedback from music composer Bruce Saylor, who in turn set the story to a musical score.

Gurganus created eleven hand-drawn color illustrations for this special edition.

In a new afterword for the story, Allan Gurganus says, “The seasonal reading of this tale always stirs discussion about the state of our imperiled nation: how can we live lives like his—making virtue a daily possibility?”

Deborah Jakubs, Rita DiGiallonardo Holloway University Librarian & Vice Provost for Library Affairs at Duke University Libraries says, “When Duke acquired the literary archive of Allan Gurganus, we knew we were adding a remarkable body of work to our already strong collection of writers in the southern literary tradition. We are delighted to work with Horse & Buggy Press and Duke University Press to bring this first publication of “A Fool for Christmas” out of the archive and onto the page— a gift to us all.”

“We are honored to play a role in this publication,” said Dean Smith, Director of Duke University Press. “Allan Gurganus is a wonderful writer and this holiday story is a compassionate and important one for our time.”

Allan Gurganus will appear at The Regulator Bookshop in Durham to read his beloved story on December 12. He is available for interviews. Copies of the limited edition will be available at Triangle area bookshops.

The publication date is November 26, 2019.

Booksellers wanting more information or wishing to place an order for the book can contact Sales Manager Jennifer Schaper at jennifer.schaper@dukeupress.edu.
All other inquiries: Laura Sell, Publicity, lsell@dukeupress.edu or 919-687-3639.

Literary History after the Nation?

The current field of literary history is rapidly expanding, presenting an exciting but also bewildering time for historians of literature. Designations of literary periods have become progressively more flexible while some scholars have simply abandoned the idea of distinct literary periods and geographically limited literary histories altogether. In the newest issue of Modern Language Quarterly, “Literary History after the Nation?” edited by Peter Kalliney, contributors consider the status of modern literary history in this moment of flux. They pose the question: now that the unspoken national and regional assumptions of literary studies are being challenged, how should we write literary history?

Topics include the works and theories of Russian poet Keti Chukhrov, an examination of the term “world poetry,” arguments for and against linear periodization, and a 1930s Soviet project to found a “world literature.”

Browse the issue’s contents and read the introduction, freely available. Be sure to sign up to receive email alerts about new issues of Modern Language Quarterly!

Now Available: Syllabi from Duke University Press

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In the spirit of University Press Week’s “Read. Think. Act.” theme, we’re thrilled to unveil a project that our team has been working on for months: staff-curated syllabi of incisive work on some of today’s most critical issues.

All journal articles and issues in these syllabi are freely available online until September 30, 2020. And you can save 40% on featured books and journal issues through the end of 2019 using coupon code SYLLABI at dukeupress.edu.

Our team at the Press sees scholarship as a powerful basis for understanding our current sociopolitical climate and working toward a brighter future. We encourage you to read and share the content we’ve selected, and we hope you find it valuable in preparing courses.

E. Patrick Johnson’s Fall Tour for Honeypot

E. Patrick Johnson, author of Honeypot: Black Southern Women Who Love Women (Duke University Press), will be reading and discussing his new book at various locations throughout the US this fall and into the beginning of next year. At one of these events in Chicago, he will be in conversation with Honeypot contributor Alexis Pauline Gumbs, author of M Archive and Spill, both also published by Duke University Press.

Reading and Discussion
Monday, November 11 at 6:00 pm
Busboys and Poets
2021 14th St NW, Washington, DC 20009

Reading and Discussion
Tuesday, November 19 at 7:00 pm
Amherst Books
8 Main St, Amherst, MA 01002

Reading and Discussion
Thursday, December 5
Women & Children First
5233 N. Clark St, Chicago, IL 60640

Reading and Discussion
Saturday, December 7
Charis Books & More
184 S. Candler St, Decatur, GA 30030

Reading and Discussion with Alexis Pauline Gumbs
Sunday, January 12 at 3:00 pm
Seminary Co-op Bookstore
5751 S. Woodlawn Ave, Chicago, IL 60637

Reading and Discussion
Wednesday, January 22 at 7:00 pm
The Regulator Bookshop
720 9th St, Durham, NC 27705

Reading and Discussion
Thursday, January 23
Malaprop’s Bookstore/Cafe
55 Haywood St, Asheville, NC 28801

Reading and Discussion
Wednesday, January 29
Harvard Book Store
1256 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138

Reading and Discussion
Friday, February 7
Skylight Books
1814 N. Vermont Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90027

Combining oral history with magical realism and poetry, Honeypot is an engaging and moving book that reveals the complexity of identity while offering a creative method for scholarship to represent the lives of other people in a rich and dynamic way.

University Press Week: How to Be an Environmental Steward

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Welcome to Day 3 of the University Press Week blog tour. Today’s theme is How to Be an Environmental Steward. We asked some of our authors to answer the question,“What is one thing that more people need to understand about the current global climate crisis?”

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Orrin Pilkey, James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Geology at Duke University and co-author of Sea-Level Rise: A Slow Tsunami on America’s Shores

Much of the CO2 we are putting in the air now will be with us for many years. If we don’t control and lower CO2 emissions within the next 2 decades, climate change will be become a runaway event causing massive global migration, wars over water and migration patterns, critical sea level rise impacts and important, perhaps devastating changes in food sources. The time for action is now.

0Shawna Ross, Assistant Professor of Modern British Literature and the Digital Humanities at Texas A&M University and author of “Teaching in Stormy Weather” (Pedagogy, vol. 19, issue 3)

“Climate change” is a loose and baggy monster of a word, as Henry James might put it. It should not be understood as a single phenomenon, but as a multifaceted problem that manifests in ways that differ profoundly depending on where you are on the globe. We all experience climate change in a local way, and our efforts to combat it must include careful attention to these local conditions.

Bethany Allen, studio portraitsTeena Gabrielson, Professor of Political Science at the University of Wyoming and author of “The Visual Politics of Environmental Justice” (Environmental Humanities vol. 11, issue 1)

In a visually saturated global culture, images are powerful means of communication. Today, there is growing awareness that those hit first and hardest by the escalating climate emergency disproportionately come from the world’s most marginalized communities. To envision a more just and green future and create a more inclusive climate justice movement, we need a better understanding of the visual politics that shape the depiction of environmental injustice and visual strategies that disrupt and resist ways of seeing entrenched in dominant power hierarchies.

cymene-howeCymene Howe, Associate Professor of Anthropology at Rice University and author of Ecologics: Wind and Power in the Anthropocene

We need to understand that it is imperative to immediately transition away from fossil fuels and create a new, global energy infrastructure for a sustainable future. This is an incredible opportunity because we can learn from our past mistakes—where hydrocarbon extraction has led to both environmental destruction and social inequalities. We now have a chance to do it right. What if we were to see new energy sources—such as solar, wind and biofuels—as not only fuels but as the foundation for new political forms that are committed to environmental justice rather than the petrologics of endless growth and resource exploitation?

0Nicole Welk-Joerger, PhD candidate in the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania and author of “Restoring Eden in the Amish Anthropocene” (Environmental Humanities vol. 11, issue 1)

As we approach this global dilemma, many of us place unreasonably high expectations on farmers and farm workers. They need to adapt to our changing tastes and continue to provide us with cheap and convenient food, all while mitigating their own contributions to the climate crisis. Our chance for a sustainable future relies on the recognition that food production and consumption are only one part of a much larger, interdependent system of questionable practices. The transportation and energy industries need to feel the same weight of blame and the necessity to adapt that many of the world’s farmers currently experience.

dominc-boyerDominic Boyer, Professor of Anthropoogy at Rice University and author of Energopolitics: Wind and Power in the Anthropocene.

There is no way to bend our current ecocidal trajectory through individual actions. If you want to fly less or recycle more, those are great choices, but they won’t impact climate change. Individual consumption is simply the wrong scale of intervention. And the petrocultural powers that be want you to feel guilty and complicit. The fact is that all that matters where we are now in the neo-Pliocene is coordinated governmental initiatives aimed at developing the infrastructure of a post-growth global civilization committed to values of sustainability, peace and justice. If you want to help, my advice would be to take your guilt and fear and redirect those emotions toward principled passionate work to develop responsible and effective government. Maybe that’s government of a liberal-democratic nature or maybe it’s in the form of a non-state collective. If you can’t find political leadership worthy of your support, become that leader yourself. The world will thank you for it.

CallisonCandis Callison is Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Journalism and in the Institute for Critical Indigenous Studies at the University of British Columbia. She is the author of How Climate Change Comes to Matter: The Communal Life of Facts.

How we define and think about climate change has changed immensely in the last 30 years, and we’re currently in the midst of a window of time (until 2030) defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to act (i.e. change infrastructure to decrease emissions) in order to limit long term impacts and the increase in global temperature. This is what defines climate change as a global crisis, but that shouldn’t also foreclose on questions about what kind of crisis it is, for whom, and who has a seat at the table where decisions about how to act (and when) are being made.  Many Indigenous communities, globally are already dealing with climate change impacts, yet diverse Indigenous knowledges, experiences, and histories that could offer profound insight into the climate crisis are often not at the table where decisions are being made—limiting the frameworks within which the climate crisis is considered and addressed.

Please continue on the blog tour by visiting the other university presses participating today. At University of Pittsburgh Press, author Patricia Demarco writes about global and local sustainability. Columbia University Press features a guest post from the author of Live Sustainably Now with tips to decreasing your carbon footprint. University of California Press offers a post by the author of forthcoming book A Field Guide to Climate Anxiety: How to Keep Your Cool on a Warming Planet. Head to Yale University Press for a post with actionable steps on helping the environment and to University of South Carolina Press for photos from the authors of Carolina Bays about preservation of these unique ecological systems. Bucknell University Press offers a post by Tim Wenzell, editor of Woven Shades of Green: An Anthology of Irish Nature Writing on why ecocriticism makes us better stewards of nature. At Oregon State University Press, Marcy Cottrell Houle discusses her new book, A Generous Nature: Lives Transformed by Oregon. University of Minnesota Press shares a post by Jennifer Telesca on the managed extinction of the giant bluefin tuna. University of Mississippi Press features author Jessica H. Schexnayder, whose work documents the dying histories of coastal communities. And University of Toronto Press has a post by sales rep Alex Keys, discussing the ways in which he is able to merge his job with his desire to be a better steward for the environment.

University Press Week 2019: Read. Think. Act.

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It’s University Press Week! University Press Week highlights the extraordinary work of nonprofit scholarly publishers and their many contributions to culture, the academy, and an informed society. We’ll be celebrating with displays at the Durham County Library’s South Regional branch, the LGBTQ Center of DurhamNorth Carolina Central University, Durham’s Riverside High School library, and around Duke University’s campus at the Center for Sexual and Gender Diversity, the Music Library, the Office for Faculty Advancement, the John Hope Franklin Center, the Forum for Scholars and Publics, the Rubenstein Arts Center, the Center for Muslim Life,  the Center for Documentary Studies, and the Sarah P. Duke Gardens. If you’re in Durham please stop by and check out some of our recent titles and pick up a bookmark.

This year’s University Press Week theme is “Read. Think. Act.” It’s is a particularly apt theme as many citizens around the globe continue to engage in important debates that will influence vital decision-making in the months ahead; in fact, this year’s UP Week will begin exactly one year to the day before the 2020 Election Day in the U.S. Through this positive theme AUPresses members worldwide seek to encourage people to read the latest peer-reviewed publications about issues that affect our present and future—from politics to economics to climate change to race relations and more—and to better understand academic presses’ important contribution to these vital areas of concern. To that end, AUPresses members have suggested a “Read. Think. Act. Reading List” that can serve as a starting place for any reader who wants to learn more. Our contribution to that list is Sea Level Rise: A Slow Tsumani on America’s Shores, by Orrin H. Pilkey and Keith C. Pilkey, who argue that the only feasible response to climate change along much of the US shoreline is an immediate and managed retreat.

A blog tour has been set up to highlight university press books, authors, and editors that fit the “Read. Think. Act.” theme. Today’s tour features presses blogging about “how to be a better (global) citizen.” Participating presses are University of California Press, University of Virginia Press, Purdue University Press, Georgetown University Press, University of Wisconsin Press, Manchester University Press, University Press of Florida, and University of Minnesota Press. Check out their posts today and come back here Wednesday, when several of our authors and editors will be participating in a roundtable about the global climate crisis.

Please share your love for university presses and all they do for scholarship on social media this week with the hashtag #ReadUP.

New Books in November

This month, we’re offering a cornucopia of fresh titles in anthropology, media studies, sociology, history, native and indigenous studies, and more. Take a look at all of these exciting new books available in November!

978-1-4780-0649-7_prWhat does it mean to be a decolonial tourist? We are excited to present our first travel guide book,  Detours, edited by Hokulani K. Aikau and Vernadette Vicuna Gonzalez.  In the book artists, activists, and scholars redirect readers from the fantasy of Hawai‘i as a tropical paradise and tourist destination toward a multilayered and holistic engagement with Hawai‘i’s culture, complex history, and the effects of colonialism. We’ll have lots of copies at the American Studies Association meeting in Honolulu later this month.

Mark Goodale’s ethnographic study of Bolivian politics and society between 2006 and 2015, A Revolution in Fragments, reveals the fragmentary and contested nature of the country’s radical experiments in pluralism, ethnic politics, and socioeconomic planning.colonialism.

In The Politics of Taste Ana María Reyes examines how the polarizing art of Beatriz González disrupted Cold War aesthetic discourses and the politics of class and modernization in 1960s Colombia.

Nicholas D’Avella offers an ethnographic reflection on the value of buildings in post-crisis Buenos Aires in Concrete Dreams, showing how everyday practices transform buildings into politically, economically, and socially consequential objects, and arguing that such local forms of value and practice suggest possibilities for building better futures.

In his engaging and moving book, Honeypot, E. Patrick Johnson combines magical realism, poetry, and performative writing to bear witness to the real-life stories of black southern queer women in ways that reveal the complexity of identity and the challenges these women face. Johnson is on a book tour for Honeypot. Look for a post later this month with all the dates.

In Trans Exploits Jian Neo Chen examines how contemporary trans of color artists are tracking and resisting their displacement and social marginalization through new forms of cultural expression, performance, and activism.

 

In Punctuations Michael J. Shapiro examines how the use of punctuation—conceived not as a series of marks but as a metaphor for the ways in which artistic genres engage with intelligibility—in art opens pathways for thinking through the possibilities for oppositional politics.

In a meditation on loss, inheritance, and survival, The Unspoken as Heritage, renowned historian Harry Harootunian explores the Armenian genocide’s multigenerational afterlives that remain at the heart of the Armenian diaspora by sketching the everyday lives of his parents, who escaped the genocide in the 1910s.

Tyler Denmead critically examines his role as the founder of New Urban Arts—a nonprofit arts program for young people of color in Providence, Rhode Island—and how despite its success, it unintentionally contributed to Providence’s urban renewal efforts, gentrification, and the displacement of people of color in The Creative Underclass.

Kamari Maxine Clarke explores the African Union’s pushback against the International Criminal Court in order to theorize affect’s role in shaping forms of justice in Affective Justice.

In Before the Flood, Jacob Blanc examines the creation of the Itaipu Dam—the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world—on the Brazil–Paraguay border during the 1970s and 1980s to explore the long-standing conflicts around land, rights, indigeneity, and identity in rural Brazil.

In Screening Race in American Nontheatrical Film, edited by Allyson Nadia Field and Marsha Gordon, the contributors examine the place and role of race in educational films, home movies, industry and government films, anthropological films, church films, and other forms of noncommercial filmmaking throughout the twentieth century.

Deborah A. Thomas uses the 2010 military and police incursion into the Kingston, Jamaica, Tivoli Gardens neighborhood as a point of departure for theorizing the roots of contemporary state violence in Jamaica and other post-plantation societies in Political Life in the Wake of the Plantation.

In Progressive Dystopia Savannah Shange traces the afterlives of slavery as lived in a progressive high school set in post-gentrification San Francisco, showing how despite the school’s sincere antiracism activism, it unintentionally perpetuated antiblackness through various practices.

In Sacred Men Keith L. Camacho examines the U.S. Navy’s war crimes tribunal in Guam between 1944 and 1949 which tried members of Guam’s indigenous Chamorro community and Japanese nationals and its role in shaping contemporary domestic and international laws regarding combatants, jurisdiction, and property.

Maile Arvin analyzes the history of racialization of Polynesians within the context of settler colonialism across Polynesia, especially in Hawai‘i, arguing that a logic of possession through whiteness animates European and Hawaiian settler colonialism in Possessing Polynesians.

978-1-4780-0621-3_prIn his experimental ethnography, Ethnography #9, Alan Klima examines moneylending, gambling, funeral casinos, and the consultations of spirits and mediums to predict winning lottery numbers to illustrate the relationship between contemporary Thai spiritual and financial practices and global capitalism’s abstraction of monetary value.

In Biogenetic Paradoxes of the Nation, Sakari Tamminen traces the ways in which the mandates of 1992’s Convention on Biological Diversity—hailed as the key symbol of a common vision for saving Earth’s biodiversity—contribute less to biodiversity conservation than to individual nations using genetic resources for economic and cultural gain.

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